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白宫The White House

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发表于Post on 2016-11-11 13:21:24 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读Read
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白宫,北接拉斐特广场,南邻爱丽普斯公园,与高耸的华盛顿纪念碑相望,是一座白色的二层楼房。
    白宫从前并不是白色的,也不称白宫,而被称作“总统大厦”、“总统之宫”。1792年始建时是一栋灰色的沙石建筑。从1800年起,它是美国总统在任期内办公并和家人居住的地方。但是在1812年发生的第二次美英战争中,英国军队入侵华盛顿。1814年8月24日英军焚毁了这座建筑物,只留下了一付空架子。1817年重新修复时为了掩饰火烧过的痕迹,门罗总统下令在灰色沙石上漆上了一层白色的油漆。此后这栋总统官邸一直被称为“白宫”。1901年美国总统西奥多·罗斯福正式把它命名为“白宫”,后成为美国政府的代名词。白宫是美国总统府所在地。
  对人们来说白宫总是充满了神秘感。根据白宫支出由全体纳税人担负的原则,白宫的一部分在规定时间内向全世界公民开放,因此成了游人观光的热点。

建筑
白宫共占地7.3万多平方米
  由主楼和东、西两翼三部分组成。主楼宽51.51米,进深25.75米,共有底层、一楼和二楼3层。白宫是美国总统办公和居住之地,因而成为美国政府的代称。底层有外交接待大厅、图书室、地图室、瓷器室、金银器室和白宫管理人员办公室等。外交接待大厅呈椭圆形,是总统接待外国元首和使节的地方,铺着天蓝色底、椭圆形的花纹地毯,上绣象征美国50个州的标志,墙上挂有描绘美国风景的巨幅环形油画。
图书室约60多平方米
  室内的桌、椅、书橱和灯具等,均为古典式。藏有图书近3000册,其中不乏美国各个时期著名作家的代表作。此外,这里还存有美国历届总统的有关资料。在藏书壁柜旁的墙上挂着五幅印第安人的画像,这是当年美国总统在白宫会见过的印第安部落代表团的成员。
地图室珍藏
  有各种版本的现代地图集和一幅名贵的18世纪绘制的地图。第二次世界大战期间,这里曾是罗斯福总统研究战争形势的密室。从1970年起,此处已改为接待室,室内挂着本杰明·富兰克林的画像和美国19世纪哈得逊河画派的风景画,如哈特作于1858年的名画《山间湖水》等。
金银器陈列室
  藏有各种精致的英、法式镀金银制餐具和镶金银器。
  瓷器室收藏有历届总统用过的瓷制餐具,其中有一套从中国进口的名瓷。白宫是美国政要名流的舞台,也是全世界最好客的元首官邸,两个世纪以来四十多位白宫主人在这里工作与生活。它的每个房间都有说不完的故事。新的主人为了显示其统治权总喜欢改变原有的装潢或摆饰,以表明新主人的不同品味,白宫总是以新的面貌迎接它的主人。


The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. It has been the residence of every U.S. president since John Adams in 1800. The term White House is often used to refer to actions of the president and his advisers, as in "The White House announced that...".

The house was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the Neoclassical style. Construction took place between 1792 and 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he (with architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe) added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began almost immediately, and President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817. Construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829.

Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years later, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office which was eventually moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events; Jefferson's colonnades connected the new wings. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946, creating additional office space. By 1948, the house's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were completely dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt.

The modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence. The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, and Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture".


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发表于Post on 2017-1-8 18:53:03 | 显示全部楼层
喜欢这里

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发表于Post on 2017-3-11 07:00:00 | 显示全部楼层
execellent

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发表于Post on 2017-3-26 08:51:16 | 显示全部楼层
长见识了

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发表于Post on 2017-4-8 12:32:30 | 显示全部楼层
Amazing place

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发表于Post on 2017-4-19 18:07:46 | 显示全部楼层
过来看看

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发表于Post on 2017-4-23 14:17:12 | 显示全部楼层
漂亮漂亮

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发表于Post on 2017-5-1 23:13:10 | 显示全部楼层
That's fine

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发表于Post on 2017-5-7 17:52:39 | 显示全部楼层
Really fun

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发表于Post on 2017-5-21 15:55:10 | 显示全部楼层
I see it
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